Smoking, stress, and certain pathological cases such as diabetes, genetic diseases, and immune deficiencies, can lead to pathological dental problems. These diseases are categorised as pathological because they can lead to the diminishing, and even death of the gums, which are then not able to house and sustain the teeth.
It is a rough generalization, but roughly 60% of people suffer from some sort of periodontological disease, and in every 10 of these people have a serious gum disease, which if not diagnosed and treated in time can lead to tooth loss.


Typical symptoms include the swelling of the gums, the gums taking on a color that is a brighter or deeper red than is usual, or bleeding. Gum diseases are one hundred percent curable, but if they are not recognized in time, and treatment is not started in time, they can become quite a serious problem, which is called periodontitis. The therapy involved is not too complicated, it can be done with just a few visits (the removal of plaque is also included, done by a dentist or a dental hygienist). It is important that good oral hygiene be maintained, so that new problems do not start, but this can be done with regular brushing of teeth and proper use of dental floss.
Periodontology essentially means the healing of the gum line by treating the infected tissue deeply, and sometimes even removing parts of it, before the gum gets bad enough to start the tooth loss process.

Once this process starts, it is very difficult to become completely cured of it, so treatment should be started as soon as possible.
To act preemptively against these diseases, at home oral care is the most important factor; systematic brushing of teeth and the use of dental floss are indispensible. Besides this most important factor, it is also necessary to get a dental check up and deep cleaning once every six months so as to be able to nip peridontological problems in the bud. Plaque is the most common source of dental and oral hygienic problems.
It is most commonly recognised in the parts of the mouth where the salivary ducts end, on the lingual side of the bottom jaw, and on the outer side of the molars. The removal of plaque, which is called a hygiene session, can only be performed by a dentist, a certified oral hygienist, or an oral surgeon.

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